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Created by: Mehdi Damaghi, Jeffrey West

Issue 238: Glucose is converted to energy through "fermentation" or "oxidation". Generally, if oxygen is available, cells will oxidize glucose to CO2 because it is more efficient than fermentation, which produces lactic acid. But Otto Warburg noted that cancers ferment glucose at a "remarkable" rate even if O2 is available! Using a combination of in vitro experiments, RNA sequencing, and mathematical modelling we propose that the harsh microenviroment near the ductal center in the breast foments the emergence of such a Warburg Effect phenotype, providing an explanation for how DCIS progresses to a lethal disease. To learn more, check out the paper here.